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US policy is based on. The National Science Museum NSM in Japan has recently completed a project using different types of visitor-oriented digital technologies. With sponsorship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science JSPS , the NSM team carried out a four-year study to examine how digital technologies can be used to enhance as well as educationally…. To survey the use of silicone oil in clinical ophthalmology in Japan.
Questionnaires were sent to 1, hospitals registered as being ophthalmology residency training institutions with the Japanese Ophthalmological Society as of September Responses were collected via the Internet and results totaled. The use of silicone oil at each institution for the one-year period was assessed, included queries regarding type of silicone oil , indication for use, results and complications. Hospitals were divided into non-specialty institutions, intermediate-specialty institutions and specialty institutions based on number of vitrectomy procedures performed in the one-year period, and trends were analyzed based on these divisions.
Responses were received from institutions Of a total of 36, vitrectomy procedures, silicone oil was used in 2, cases 6.
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The diagnosis was proliferative vitreoretinopathy in the majority of cases, followed by proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The majority of institutions replied that the indication for use was complicated case. The type of silicone oil used was ophthalmic formulation in institutions Specialty institutions had a higher rate of use of the industrial formulation. The average volume used at one time was 6. The majority of institutions responded that silicone oil removal was performed at 3 months after the initial vitrectomy.
Silicone oil was not removed in cases in which continued tamponade was judged to be appropriate; this comprised The overall evaluation for silicone oil use was good; silicone oil was rated as being indispensable in 72 cases Responses stating a high need for silicone oil were most frequent for proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Two vaccination systems have been employed in Japan , the routine vaccination and the voluntary vaccination. Claims after the routine vaccination are demanded to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare through local governments, and compensation is more expenses. Meanwhile, claims after the voluntary vaccination are demanded to the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Device Agency directly, and compensation is less compared with the routine vaccination.
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Forecasts of peak oil production have focussed on the global impacts of declining production. Meanwhile, national oil production has declined in 20 countries, leading to local problems that receive little comment outside of the effected regions. Two problems deserve wider recognition: declining state revenues and fuel substitution. Most oil producing countries with large reserves adopted licensing practices that provide significant revenues to the host governments such that oil revenues generate from 40 to 80 percent of total government funds.
Typically these governments allocate a fraction of this revenue to their state oil companies, utilizing the remainder for other activities. As oil revenues decline with falling production, host governments face a dilemma: either to increase state oil company budgets in order to stem the decline, or to starve the state oil company while maintaining other government programs.
The declining oil revenues in these states can significantly reduce the government's ability to address important national issues. Mexico, Indonesia, and Yemen illustrate this situation in its early phases. Fuel substitution occurs whenever one fuel proves less expensive than another.
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The substitution of coal for wood in the eighteenth century and oil for coal in the twentieth century are classic examples. China and India appear to be at peak oil production, while their economies generate increasing demand for energy. Both countries are substituting coal and natural gas for oil with attendant environmental impacts. Coal-to-liquids projects are proposed in in both China, which will require significant water resources if they are executed.
These examples suggest that forecasting the impact of peak oil at a regional level requires more than an assessment of proven-probable-possible reserves and a forecast of supply-demand scenarios. A range of government responses to declining oil income scenarios must also be considered, together with scenarios describing.
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Incorporation of National Universities in Japan. In April , Japanese national universities were incorporated and became much more autonomous from the government in their operations. Their managerial structure was realigned--placing the president at the centre of the decision-making process, and with the participation of external persons--to be more responsive to the changing needs of…. In Japan , Tsutsugamushi disease, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is re-emerging with newly recognized strains and is now endemic in all prefectures except Hokkaido and Okinawa.
We analyzed recent surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease and to evaluate the newly implemented national surveillance system according to the CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. In , cases of Tsutsugamushi disease were reported from 37 of 47 prefectures; two of these cases were fatal. The median age of case-patients was 64 years range: 2 - 94 years ; In northern Japan , most cases were diagnosed in the months of May through July and in the months of October through December, and in southern Japan , cases were diagnosed almost year-round with a peak from October through December and in January.
Reporting and transfer of surveillance information from the prefecture to the national level was effective and timely, but the completeness and quality of case reporting could still be improved. The current system for Tsutsugamushi disease surveillance is useful for describing epidemiologic patterns by time, prefecture, and demographic characteristics. However, collection of additional information on suspected place of transmission, activity performed at the place of transmission, or the case-patient's profession would likely make the system more valuable for outbreak detection and for better defining populations at risk.
Distribution of oil -degrading bacteria in coastal seawater, Toyama Bay, Japan. Oil -degrading bacteria are considered to play an important role in the biodegradation of spilled or released oil in the sea. The distribution of indigenous oil -degrading bacteria in the coastal seawater of Toyama Bay, Japan , was examined.
Sequence analysis revealed that several DGGE bands clearly detected only in samples with oil film corresponded to Cyanobacteria. Moreover, we cultured surface seawater samples with oil film in two different liquid culture media, a marine broth and an NSW medium; each culture contained 0.
Emulsification of the oil was observed at day 6 in the marine broth and day 9 in the NSW medium. Time-dependent changes of bacterial communities in those culture media were analyzed by DGGE. Interestingly, we found that Alcanivorax sp. Alcanivorax sp. These results suggest that Cyanobacteria and Alcanivorax play important roles in the bioremediation of oil -contaminated areas in Toyama Bay.
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The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan 's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily….
Federal Register , , , , Dated: July 3, Stanley Meiburg, Acting National Oil and [[Page Japan has been criticized by free-market strategists and frustrated Even more important, defeat of a retaliatory bill based on general. The Japanese educational system is undergoing extensive change, affecting all stages from pre-school programmes to higher education. As Japan has moved from a nation at the top to "A Nation at Risk," certain dichotomies have been highlighted.
Viewing Japan as either educational super-power or educational tragedy, depending on the era of research or background of the researchers, has been especially provocative for educators and policy-makers. At the same time, the controversies in America surrounding the report A Nation at Risk National Commission on Excellence in Education are well known, a major impetus for the report of course being Japan.
Central to the question of whether Japan is best understood as a Global Model or A Nation at Risk are themes of cross- national attraction and educational transfer. What can the world learn from Japan? What does Japan need to learn from the world? The answers to these questions have particular significance for Japanese higher education, which we take up as a case study here, with its urgent task to innovate in the face of a steep demographic downward trend.
For those in Japan who feel that Japanese education is in a dismal state, what are the origins of this serious decline? Or are they simply rhetorical tools in support of domestic political projects?
The purpose of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan NCP is to provide the organizational structure and procedures for preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants This article attempts to explore the nexus between oil consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions in three East Asian oil importing countries i.
The empirical findings provide evidence for the existence of a long-run relationship between oil consumption and economic growth in China and Japan. The results also point to a uni-directional causality from running from oil consumption to economic growth in China and Japan , and from oil consumption to CO 2 emissions in South Korea. The overall results of GIRF reveal that while economic growth in China and South Korea shows a positive response to oil consumption, this variable responses negatively to the same shock in Japan.
In addition, oil consumption spikes cause a negative response of CO 2 emissions in Japan and China, as well as a U-shape response in South Korea. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria. National surveillance of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan.